RussNet: wordnet  for Russian


The following resources are used in building RussNet

Explanatory Dictionaries of Russian:

  1. Dictionary of Modern Literary Russian (vol. 1-17). Moscow-Leningrad, 1991 (120.000 entries). It is the second (revised) edition of the largest explanatory dictionary of Russian, created in 1948-65.
  2. Dictionary of Russian /ed. by A. P. Evgenjeva (vol.1-4). Moscow, 1985-88 (about 90.000 entries). The previous editions (1981-84) are used as well.
  3. Ozhegov S. I. Dictionary of Russian /ed. N. I. Shvedova. Moscow, 1984.
  4. Ozhegov S. I., Shvedova N. I. Explanatory Dictionary of Russian. Moscow, 1992 (about 80.000 entries).

Frequency Lists:

  • Schteinfeldt E. A. Frequency Dictionary of Modern Literary Russian. Tallinn, 1963 (2500 entries).
  • Frequency Dictionary of Russian / ed. L. N. Zasorina. Moscow, 1977.(40.000 entries)
  • Sharoff S. A. Frequency List of Russian (35.000 entries) The list was obtained in processing of the corpus containing newspaper and magazine texts, technical and academic reports, and fiction from 1970-s to 2002 (total amount of word forms processed is about 40.000.000).

Word Association Norms:

  1. Karaulov U. N. et al. Russian Word Association Thesaurus. Moscow, 1994; 1996; 1998 (about 8000 entries).
  2. Norms of Russian Word Associations / ed. A. A. Leontiev. Moscow, 1977 (about 100 entries). These resources are based on results of psycholinguistic experiments, carried out according to the technique known as Free Association Test: a list of words (stimuli) is given, to which subjects respond with the first word that is evoked (responses). The lists of responses and their absolute frequencies for each stimulus word constitute the body of Word Association Norms.

Dictionaries of Russian Synonyms:

  1. Dictionary of Russian Synonyms / ed. A. P. Evgenjeva (vol. 1-2). Leningrad, 1970 (4148 entries).
  2. New Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Synonyms /ed. U. D. Apresjan. vol. 1. Moscow, 1997. vol. 2. Moscow, 2000 (132 entries).


  1. Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Verbs /ed. L. G. Babenko. Moscow, 1999 (about 6.500 entries). It is an idiographic description of domains, domain structure and inter-domain relations (synonymy, antonymy) of Russian verbs, provided with Russian-English equivalents.

Corpora of Literary Texts:

  • Azolskij A., Akimov I. A., Akunin B., Aleksin A.G., Andreev L., Babel I., Balashov D. M., Belov V., Belyh G., Bondarev Ju., Bondi S. M., Bulgakov M. A., Bunin I. A., Vishnevskaja S., Gajdar A., Giljarovskij V., Gogol N.V., Golovanov V., Granin D., Grin A. S., Gunin L., Deduhova I., Dostoevskyj F. M., Eugenija T., Erofeev V., Fedorov E., Zamjatin E., Latynina Ju., Leskov N.S., Martynov I., Mihajlichenko E., Nabokov V. V., Ostrovskij A. N., Panteleev A., Pasternak B., Pikul V., Pushkin A. S., Romodanov A., Saltykov-Schedrin M. E., Serafimovich A., Tolstoy A., Tolstoj L. N., Turgenev I. S., Teffi N. A., Fedorova L., Chehov A. P., Shirokov N., Shmelev I.

Corpora of Newspaper and Magazine Texts:

  • Argumenty i Fakty, Vedomosti, Gaudeamus, Ezhenedelnyj Zhurnal, Expert, Znamja, Itogi, Inostranetz, Kariera, Kommersant, Moskovsky Komsomoletz, Ogonek, Nauka i Zhizn, Nezavisimaja Gazeta, Novaja Gazeta, Novyj Mir, Paradox, Profil, Promyshlennost i Biznes, Russkaja Mysl, Smena, Sobesednik (numbers issued in 1990-s - 2002)
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